Global hotspot mass flux list

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Download the mass flux data of 82 hotspots from here.

Data format: 1st, Longitude; 2nd, Latitude; 3rd, Buoyancy flux, B [103 kg m-3]; 4th, Name

Distributions of hotspots and Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs)

Present-day hotspot locations and geoid anomaly

With coastlines at 200 Ma




With coastlines at 0 Ma (the present day)


The geoid data is based on the EGM96 potential model (Lemoine et al., 1998) after correction for the hydrostatic shape (Nakiboglu, 1982).

Present-day hotspot locations and seismic velocoty anomaly at the CMB

With coastlines at 200 Ma




With coastlines at 0 Ma (the present day)


The seismic velocity anomaly data is based on the S40RTS (Ritsema et al., 2011).

Steps for data preparation

Locations
  1. First, I used a hotspot list from the GPLATES project at the University of Texas (hereafter, the PLATES list, see References section below). In the top of this data file, they noted that "after Mueller, Royer, and Lawver, 1993, Geology, vol. 21, pp. 275-278 or from GVP = Global Volcanism Project location (http://www.volcano.si.edu/)". In this step, there were 56 hotspots.
  2. Next, I added 8 hotspots from Table 1 of a paper by Steinberger (2000): They were Darfur, East Australia, East Africa, Jan Mayen, Lord Howe, Meteor, St. Helena, and Socorro hotspots. In this step, there were 64 hotspots. In this table caption, Dr. Steinberger wrote: "Estimates of anomalous mass xlux are based on work by Davies [1988], Sleep [1990], Schilling [1991], Davies [1992], and Ribe and Christensen [1999]".
  3. Third, I added 2 hotspots from Table 1 of a paper by Zhao (2007): They were Discovery and Hainan. In this step, there were 66 hotspots.
  4. Forth, I added 10 hotspots from Table 1 of a paper by Montelli et al. (2006): They were Atlantic_Ridge, Chatam, Cocos/Keeling, Cook_Island, Coral_Sea, East_of_Solomon, Etna, Indian_Ocean, South_of_Java, and Seychelles. In this step, there were 76 hotspots.
  5. Fifth, I added 2 hotspots from Table 1 of a hotspot list in www.MantlePlumes.org (http://www.mantleplumes.org/CompleateHotspot.html): They were Christmas and Foundation hotspots. In this step, there were 78 hotspots.
  6. Following Table 1 of King and Adam (2014), I added 2 hotspots; Arago and Rarotonga. In this step, there were 80 hotspots.
  7. I added 4 "slab-related" hotspots in East Asia from a paper by Zhao (2007): They are Changbai, Wudalianchi, Datong, and Tengchong hotspots. In this step, there were 84 hotspots.
  8. "SOCIETY ISLANDS" in the PLATES list was removed because the Tahiti hotspot are a part of the Society Islands (Sleep [1990] showed that the maxx flux of "Tahiti" given by Davies [1988] is B = 5.8. However, in the original paper by Davies [1988], it is named as "Society"). In this step, there were 83 hotspots.
  9. "AUSTRAL-COOK ISLANDS HOTSPOT" and "MACDONALD SEAMOUNT" should be the same hotspot. Following Table 1 of King and Adam (2014), they are marged and renamed as "MacDonald/Austral-Cook". In this step, there were 82 hotspots.
  10. Following Table 1 of King and Adam (2014), "Afar" and "Great Meteor" are replaced by "Afar/Ethiopia" and "Great Meteor/New England".
  11. Following Table 1 of White (2010), "Tristan" is replace by "Tristan/Gough".
  12. I didn't know that "FLINDERS SEAMOUNT, LORD HOWE RISE, TASMAN SEA" in the PLATES list was the same as Lord Howe (Tasman East) in Steinberger (2000).
  13. "EASTER ISLAND" and "SALA Y GOMEZ" in the PLATES list are in almost the same place, and "JEBEL MARRA, SUDAN" in the PLATES list and "Dalfur" in Steinberger (2000) are in almost the same place. Because I didn't know whether these are the same hotspots, I kept them in the final list.
  14. Following Table 1 of Courtillot et al. (2003), "BAJA CALIFORNIA, GUADAL", "CROZET", "JUAN DE FUCA, COBB SEAM", "KERGUELEN", "TRINDADE", "TAHITI", and "TASMANTID" in the PLATES list were replaced by Baja/Guadelupe", "Crozet/Pr. Edward", "Juan de Fuca/Cobb", "Kerguelen (Heard)", "Matrin/Trindade", "Tahiti/Society", and "Tasmnid (Tasman Central)" respectively. (Zhao [2007] used "Baja" instead of "Guadelupe".)
  15. Following Table 1 of Courtillot et al. (2003), "Lord Howe" was replaced by "Lord Howe (Tasman East)".
Mass fluxes
  1. First, I tried to allocate the mass flux data to the 82 hotspots from Table 1 of a paper by Sleep (1990), in which mass flux data of 37 hotspots were shown. (He also showed mass flux data of 21 hotspots out of 26 hotspots listed in Table 3 of Davies (1988).). Using the list by Dr. Sleep, I could allocate the values of mass flux to all the 37 hotspots.
  2. I allocated B = 0.9 to "Flinders (FLINDERS SEAMOUNT, LORD HOWE RISE, TASMAN SEA)" as the same B as "Lord Howe (Tasman East)".
  3. From a paper by Steinberger (2000), I could allocate the values of mass flux to 7 hotspots: They are Darfur, East Africa, Jan Mayen, New England, Socorro, Tibesti, and Vema hotspots.
  4. From a textbook by Turcotte and Schubert (2002, 2014), I could allocate the values of mass flux to the one hotspot (Ascension). Finally, I could allocate the values of buoyancy fluxes to 46 hotspots.
  5. The mass fluxes of the rest 36 hotspots were unknown because they were not written in Sleep (1990), Steinberger (2000), and Turcotte and Schubert (2002, 2014). The mass fluxes of these hotspots were set at zero (B = 0.0).
  6. I could not follow the exact location of the following hotspot listed by Turcotte and Schubert (2002, 2014): "Ethiopia" (B = 1.0).
Final data preparation
  1. I classified this list into 5 classes in accordance with the magnitudes of the mass fluxes (B) [10**3 kg/s]: (a) 0.1-0.9 (24 hotspots), (b) 1.0-1.9 (15 hotspots), (c) 3.0-3.9 (5 hotspots), (d) 8.0-8.9 (1 hotspots), and (e) "unknown" (0.0) (37 hotspots). And, I reordered the list in order of (a) to (e).

References

  • Coffin, M.F., Duncan, R.A., Eldholm, O., Fitton, J.G., Frey, F.A., Larsen, H.C., Mahoney, J.J., Saunders, A.D., Schlich, R., and Wallace, P.J., Large igneous provinces and scientific ocean drilling: Status quo and a look ahead, Oceanography, 19(4), 150-160, doi:10.5670/oceanog.2006.13, 2006.
  • Courtillot, V., Davaille A., Besse, J., and Stock, J., Three distinct types of hotspots in the Earth's mantle, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 205(3-4), 295-308, doi:10.1016/S0012-821X(02)01048-8, 1992.
  • Davies, G.F., Ocean bathymetry and mantle convection: 1. Large-scale flow and hotspots Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 93(B9), 10467-10480, doi:10.1029/JB093iB09p10467, 1988.
  • Davies, G.F., Temporal variation of the Hawaiian plume flux, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 113(1-2), 277-286, doi:10.1016/0012-821X(92)90225-K, 1992.
  • King, S.D. and Adam, C., Hotspot swells revisited, Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, 235, 66-83, doi:10.1016/j.pepi.2014.07.006, 2014.
  • Lemoine, F.G., Kenyon, S.C., Factor, J.K., R.G. Trimmer, R., Palvis, N.K., Chinn, D.S., Cox, C.M., Klosko, S.M., Luthcke, S.B., Torrence, M.H., Wang, Y.M., Williamson, R.G., Palvis, E.C., Rapp, R.H., Olson, T.R., The development of the NASA GSFC and the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) Geopotential Model EGM96, Tech. rep., NASA/TP-1998.206861, 1998.
  • Montelli, R., Nolet, G., Dahlen F.A. and Masters G., A catalogue of deep mantle plumes: New results from finite-frequency tomography, Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 7(11), doi:10.1029/2006GC001248, 2006.
  • Müller, R.D., J.-Y. Royer, and L.A. Lawver, Revised plate motions relative to the hotspots from combined Atlantic and Indian Ocean hotspot tracks, Geology, 21(3), 275-278, doi:10.1130/0091-7613(1993)021 0275:RPMRTT 2.3.CO;2, 1993.
  • Nakiboglu, S.M., Hydrostatic theory of the Earth and its mechanical implications, Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, 28, 302-311, doi:10.1016/0031-9201(82)90087-5, 1982.
  • Ribe, N.M. and U.R. Christensen, The dynamical origin of Hawaiian volcanism, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 171(4), 517-531, doi:10.1016/S0012-821X(99)00179-X, 1999.
  • Ritsema, J., Deuss, A., van Heijst, H.J., Woodhouse, J.H., S40RTS: A degree-40 shear-velocity model for the mantle from new Rayleigh wave dispersion, teleseismic traveltime and normal-mode splitting function measurements. Geophysical Journal International, 184(3), 1223-1236. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-246X.2010.04884.x, 2011.
  • Schilling, J.-G., Fluxes and excess temperatures of mantle plumes inferred from their interaction with migrating mid-ocean ridges, Nature, 352, 397-403, doi:10.1038/352397a0, 1991.
  • Schubert, G., D.L. Turcotte, and P. Olson, Mantle Convection in the Earth and Planets, Cambridge Univ. Press, UK, pp. 956, 2001.
  • Sleep N.H., Hotspots and mantle plumes: Some phenomenology, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 95(B5), 6715-6736, doi:10.1029/JB095iB05p06715, 1990.
  • Steinberger, B., Plumes in a convecting mantle: Models and observations for individual hotspots, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 105(B5), 11127-11152, doi:10.1029/1999JB900398, 2000.
  • Turcotte, D.L. and G. Schubert, Geodynamics, 2nd ed., Cambridge Univ. Press, UK, pp. 456, 2002.
  • Turcotte, D.L. and G. Schubert, Geodynamics, 3rd ed., Cambridge Univ. Press, UK, pp. 636, 2014.
  • White, W.M., Oceanic island basalts and mantle plumes: The geochemical perspective, Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 12(4), 335-355, doi:10.1146/annurev-earth-040809-152450, 2010.
  • Zhao, D., Seismic images under 60 hotspots: Search for mantle plumes, Gondwana Research, 38, 133-160, doi:10.1016/j.gr.2007.03.001, 2007.
  • PLATES, http://www.ig.utexas.edu/research/projects/plates/, Institute for Geophysics, The University of Texas at Austin. (Data in http://www.ig.utexas.edu/research/projects/plates/data.htm)
  • www.MantlePlumes.org, http://www.mantleplumes.org/index.html. (Data in http://www.mantleplumes.org/CompleateHotspot.html)